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5. Изменение значения слов

Следующие слова имеют особенности важные для перевода: не изменяя своей формы, они могут выполнять функции прилагательного и наречия.

Принимая же суффикс наречия -ly, они приобретают новый смысл.

Hard

а) прилагательное трудный, тяжелый, твердый:

The operation was very hard, but successful.

Операция была очень трудной, но успешной,

б) наречие с трудом, усиленно, тяжело:

They worked hard and achieved good results.

Они усиленно работали и добились хороших результатов.

в) наречие hardlyедва, едва ли, с трудом:

They can hardly do it without our help.

Они едва ли могут сделать это без нашей помощи.

Near

а) прилагательное близкий:

1 should like to have a near tianslation of Byron's poems.

Мне бы хотелось иметь точный (близкий) перевод поэм Байрона.

б) наречие близко:

We came quite near to the solution of the problem.

Мы подошли очень близко к решению этой проблемы.

в) наречие nearlyпочти, приблизительно, близко:

The masses of a proton and a neutron are nearly equal.

Массы протона и нейтрона почти равны.

High

а) прилагательное высокий:

Multi-storeyed buildings are very high.

Многоэтажные дома очень высоки.

б) наречие высоко:

Jet planes fly high up in the sky.

Реактивные самолёты летают высоко в небе.

в) наречие highlyвесьма, очень:

It is a highly interesting book.

Это весьма интересная книга.

Late

а) прилагательное поздний:

His late arrival caused much inconvenience.

Его позднее прибытие вызвало большие затруднения.

6) наречия поздно:

The catalist was added too late.

Катализатор был добавлен слишком поздно.

в) наречие latelyнедавно, за последнее время:

A balloon has lately been reported above this point.

Над этим пунктом недавно был замечен воздушный шар.

Short

а) прилагательное короткий:

The distance to this point is very short.

Расстояние до этого пункта очень невелико.

б) наречие резко, круто, внезапно:

The motor car stopped short.

Автомобиль внезапно остановился.

в) наречие shortlyвскоре:

The ship will shortly arrive.

Корабль вскоре придет.

Два следующих прилагательных - large и ready в функции наречия с суффиксом -ly меняют свое основное значение:

Large

а) прилагательное большой, обширный:

The entrance halls of the Leningrad Metro are large and beautiful.

Вестибюли ленинградского метро просторны и красивы.

б) наречие largely главным образом, в значительной степени:

In electrical engineering rubber is used largely as the insulating material.

В радиотехнике резина применяется главным образом как изоляционный материал.

Ready

а) прилагательное готовый:

Не is always ready to help his friends.

Он всегда готов помочь своим друзьям.

б) наречие readilyлегко, без труда:

Charcoal readily absorbs many gases.

Древесный уголь легко абсорбирует многие газы.

Упражнение

Переведите следующие предложения:

A.

1. То liberate oxygen from a compound is a very hard task. 2. When steam is superheated, hardly a trace of decomposition occurs. 3. Water contains nearly 90 per cent of oxygen. 4. Benzine is a highly inflammable liquid. 5. Radio signals are sent in short bursts. 6. The interest in ammonia centres largely in the use of liquefied ammonia for refrigeration. 7. Mercuric oxide readily decomposes at high temperature. 8. A new large plant has lately been constructed near Kiev. 9. By the 15th of January the Leningrad metro was ready to receive the first passengers. 10. New coal deposits have been found near Moscow. 11. Everest is the highest mountain of Himalayas. 12. The plane flew so high that we nearly lost sight of it. 13. The late arrival of the ship was due to the bad weather. 14. He came too late to take part in the experiment. 15. The engine stopped short. 16. The expedition is shortly leaving for the North Pole.

B.

1. The Curies had worked very hard before they could obtain a trace of radium. 2. A hard steel bar can be easily magnetized. 3. This substance is hardly soluble in water. 4. The warship fired, but it was a near miss. 5. The region of influence of magnetic forces near a magnet is called a magnetic field. 6. The volume of a solid or a liquid body is nearly independent of external pressure. 7. A high mast is required to support the television antenna. 8. The flag was fixed high on the building. 9. Ether is a highly volatile liquid. 10. I listened to the latest news. 11. Several expeditions were sent to help Sedov, but it was too late; he had already died. 12. A number of new isotopes have lately been discovered by our scientists. 13. Short waves are widely used in radio-communication. 14. The ship got fire and stopped short. 15. One of the main parts of the cyclotron is a large, powerful magnet. 16. We use short radio waves largely for long-distance communication. 17. The velocity of the sound can be readily measured.

C.
Conference on meteorites

An all-Union conference devoted to problems of meteorites has been lately held in Moscow.

So far meteorites are the only bodies of celestial origin that can be readily subjected to immediate laboratory study. Comprehensive meteorite study is highly important for the solution of the problem of the origin of planets, including the earth.

What was the origin of the meteorites? What was their development in time? We seem to be near to the solution of such problems, but the final answer to these questions can hardly be given at present. It is therefore natural that the discussion was centered largely on the origin of meteorites and their role in solar system.

One of the scientists delivered a short report on the origin of chondrules, curious rounded bodies making the bulk of large stone meteorites. He advanced a new hypothesis on the origin of chondrules; they could hardly originate as a result of the disruption of celestial bodies, but are rather themselves the "dust" mass that makes up the protoplanetary cloud which gives birth to asteroids.

A geochemist from Leningrad presented highly interesting data on meteorites. His research work was based largely on investigating rocks with the help of radio-active isotopes, a method lately developed in the Soviet Union.

A member of the Commission on Interplanetary communication told the Conference about precise calculations of the effect of meteorite collision against the hard surface of other planets when travelling at a high speed of several miles per second.

New, highly effective instruments will shortly be ready for use in the man-made earth satellite. They will detect the contact of hard meteoric dust flying near the atmospheric layer and penetrating to our planet from the cosmic space.

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