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6. Предложные обороты

Широкое распространение в научно-техническом языке имеют следующие предложные обороты:

According to; in accordance with согласно с, в соответствии с, по:

According to official figures there are several million unemployed in America.

По официальным данным в Америке несколько миллионов безработных.

In accordance with its peaceful policy the Soviet State always advocates peaceful means for settling international disputes.

В соответствии со своей мирной политикой, Советское государство всегда стоит за использование мирных средств для урегулирования международных спорных вопросов.

As to или As for что касается:

As to power development in the USSR, it is conducted on planned lines.

Что касается развития энергетики в СССР, то она осуществляется в плановом порядке.

Because of из-за, вследствие:

Because of hard ice conditions Sedov's expedition had to winter in the Arctic.

Из-за тяжелых ледовых условий экспедиция Седова была вынуждена зазимовать в Арктике.

By means of посредством, при помощи:

By means of Socialist emulation we increase productivity of our factories and works.

При помощи соцсоревнования мы повышаем производительность наших фабрик и заводов.

Due to благодаря, из-за, вследствие:

We can communicate over long distances due to invention of the radio.

Мы можем осуществлять связь на больших расстояниях, благодаря изобретению радио.

Owing to по причине, вследствие, из-за:

Owing to the bad weather the ship was two days behind the schedule.

Вследствие плохой погоды корабль опоздал на два дня.

In case (of) в случае:

In case of need we shall all go to defend our country.

В случае необходимости мы все встанем на защиту нашей страны.

In spite of или Despite несмотря на:

In spite of all efforts at improvement, the efficiency of heat engine remains low.

Несмотря на все попытки усовершенствования, эффективность теплового двигателя остается низкой.

Despite all difficulties scientists succeeded in harnessing atomic energy.

Несмотря на все трудности, ученым удалось овладеть атомной энергией.

Instead of вместо:

Instead of carrying out international agreements certain nations are violating them.

Вместо выполнения международных соглашений, некоторые страны нарушают их.

Thanks to благодаря:

Thanks to invention of the radio ships can communicate over long distances.

Благодаря изобретению радио, корабли могут поддерживать связь друг с другом на больших расстояниях.

Упражнения

I. Переведите следующие предложения:

А.

1. The principle of Socialism reads: "From each according to his ability, to each according to the work performed."

2. Thanks to the swift cultural progress of the Soviet Republics all of them have their own native intelligentsia.

3. During the blockade the Leningrad shipyards were producing new types of ships in spite of extremely hard conditions in the besieged city.

4. Due to skilful organization of the work we could break all previous coal-getting records.

5. Numerous factories, power stations, and irrigation systems have been built in China and in People's Democracies in accordance with plans drawn up by Soviet scientists and engineers.

6. As to Germany and Japan, we insist on the withdrawal of the occupation forces from these countries.

7. Because of its aggressive character the Atlantic Pact is condemned by all peace-loving nations.

8. Despite the fact that the antarctic region is still the least-explored part of our planet, it is now possible to sketch a more detailed picture of the natural conditions in this remote area thanks to the explorations of our antarctic expedition.

B.

1. Thanks to the efforts of the countries of the socialist camp and to the activity of all partisans of peace, the menace of immediate war has been averted.

2. Socialist economy developes in accordance with plans.

3. As for the Soviet Government, it has done, is doing and will do all in its power to enable the peoples to live in peace.

4. Despite their numerical strength the forces of intervention were unable to crush the freedom-loving Korean people.

5. In spite of brutal nazi repressions the French Communist Party emerged stronger from this severe trial.

* * *

1. According to Boyle's law the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

2. Because of their energy, the molecules of a liquid are always in rapid motion.

3. The а. с. voltages are changed by means of magnetic induction.

4. Quartz is one of the crystals showing an electrical effect due to compression.

5. Owing to loss of heat by radiation and friction, heat engines convert only part of heat into useful work.

6. A gas can be dissolved in a liquid; in this case the liquid changes its boiling point.

7. Polzunov's engine was the first steam engine used instead of water wheels.

C.

1. Thanks to the heroism of the Soviet people the German invaders were finally crushed.

2. Despite the machinations of the enemies of Socialism, the Soviet Power is growing in strength and stature.

3. The Soviet troops left Porkala-Udd base in accordance with the Soviet-Finnish agreement.

4. Reduction of trade with the west due to the discriminatory policy of the capitalist states, was compensated by increasing trade between the democratic countries themselves.

* * *

1. According to modern physical theories some of the electrons in a metal are free to move about in the interatomic species of the metal.

2. As to China's natural resources, they were found to be far greater than it was formerly believed.

3. Because of the warm climate in prehistoric Europe, man had no need for the protection of special shelters or clothing.

4. By means of an electric battery it is possible to direct the flow of electrons in a conductor.

5. In case of atomic explosion the energy is liberated in the form of heat and penetrating radiation.

6. Semi-conductors are used now in radio-sets instead of conventional radio-tubes.

7. Owing to food shortage and inadequate equipment Sedov's expedition could not reach the North Pole.

8. In spite of complete exhaustion Maresyev continued moving on.

II. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на значение предложных оборотов:

Diamond and graphite

Carbon is known in variety of forms; upon examining wood and coal, fat and starch, soap, sugar, and gasoline we find that one element is common to all, namely, carbon.

Diamond and graphite, in spite of their visible dissimilarity, also belong to this group of substances.

When burned, one gram of carbon gives out different amount of heat according to the form used, thus diamond gives 7,805 calories, and graphite - 7,850.

The diamond is distinguished by its natural crystalline form. For ornamental purposes it is "cut" by grinding new faces to give it the artificial form called "brilliant".

Owing to its hardness, - it is the hardest of familiar substances,- it can be scratched or polished only by means of rubbing with a diamond powder.

The colourless stones and those with special tints are highly valuable; as to the less valuable specimens, due to bad coloration, they are used for grinding, for glass cutting, and on the points of drills.

Diamonds are sold by the carat and the value increases with the size. The largest known specimen weighed 3,032 carats and was evaluated extremely high because of its perfect colour.

Graphite is found in Siberia, Cumberland, Brazil, Ceylon and elsewhere. Unlike the diamond, it is quite soft, has a specific gravity of 2.3, and conducts electricity.

Thanks to its conductivity for heat, graphite is used to make crucibles.

As graphite does not interact with chlorine, it is widely used for electrodes instead of conventional conductors in electrochemical industries in cases when chlorine is to be liberated.

Graphite is employed also as a lubricant

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