7. Союзные обороты
As ... as ... так же, как (и):
Water is as necessary for life as air.
Вода так же необходима для жизни, как и воздух.
Not so ... as ... не так ... , как:
The gale was not so severe as I thought.
Шторм был не так силен, как я предполагал.
As far as насколько, до:
As far as I know oxygen is а colourless gas.
Насколько я знаю, кислород бесцветный газ.
The expedition went as far as 86°.
Экспедиция дошла до 86°.
As long as пока:
We are. strong as long as we are united.
Мы сильны, пока мы едины.
As soon as как только:
Open the circuit as soon as you notice a spark.
Разомкните цепь, как только заметите вспышку.
As well as так же, как и: как ... так и:
In the atomic nucleus there are forces of attraction between protons as well as between neutrons.
В ядре атома имеются силы притяжения как между протонами, так и между нейтронами.
Both ... and ... как, так и a ... и ...:
We build new schools both in cities and in the country.
Мы строим новые школы как в городах, так и в деревне.
Either ... or ... или ... , или ...:
In radio communication we use either short or long waves.
В радиосвязи мы применяем или короткие, или длинные волны,
In order to (that) для того, чтобы:
The Soviet people need peace in order to carry out their gigantic plans to transform nature.
Советскому народу нужен мир для того, чтобы выполнить грандиозные планы преобразования природы.
Neither... nor... ни..., ни...:
Neither bombs nor shells could break the spirit of the Leningradians during the blockade.
Ни бомбы, ни снаряды не смогли сломить дух ленинградцев во время блокады.
The... the... чем... тем...:
The higher the temperature of the air, the greater is the velocity of a sound.
Чем выше температура воздуха, тем больше скорость звука.
I. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. Marx analyzed capitalist system in order to arm the working class with an intellectual weapon for the overthrow of capitalism.
2. Theory becomes a material force as soon as it has gripped the masses.
3. Nowadays it is quite evident that the policy of discrimination has failed in its effect, as far as the USSR, China and the People's Democracies are concerned.
* * *
1. Thermal condition occurs continuously as long as temperature difference is maintained.
2. The reaction was as violent as it was expected.
3. We strive to make things beautiful as well as useful.
4. Both the state of rest and the state of motion in
a straight line can be changed only due to some force applied by another body.
5. In early times the woods and riverbanks in Europe abounded in animals which to-day are either extinct or occur only in southern lands.
6. The atomic bomb is not so devastating as the hydrogen bomb.
7. The radioactive changes of matter take place of their own accord; we can neither start them, nor stop them.
8. The smoother the surface and the lighter the object on it, the less is the minimum force that must be applied to produce motion.
1. In 1952 alone major industrial products as well as consumer goods were produced in much greater quantities than in the period of the first five-year plan.
2. Our eastern borders extend as far as the Pacific Ocean.
3. Since World War II the colonial peoples have either succeeded in winning their national independence or are striving for this cherished goal.
* * *
1. As long as there is still some water left unevaporated in the container, the steam formed will not be pure steam, but will have some particles of water in suspension.
2. As soon as the heating ceased we noticed the liquid to change its colour.
3. Water is as necessary for life as air or food.
4. The all China Federation of Trade Unions is organized both on territorial and industrial lines.
5. The direct current is not so widely used in everyday life as the alternating current.
6. In order to overcome the increasing repulsion of the proton and maintain stability in the heavier elements, the nuclei must contain an increased proportion of neutrons.
7. When glass and porcelain are heated they neither lose nor gain in weight.
8. The more work a body can do, the more energy it possesses.
1. Soviet foreign policy has always been based on the recognition that the peaceful co-existence of the capitalist and the Socialist systems is both possible and desirable.
2. Peaceful co-existence of different states is quite possible as long as there is mutual desire to cooperate.
3. Our country knows neither unemployment nor economic depression.
4. After the Revolution Michurin was given as much assistance as he needed.
* * *
1. The Peking library contains the most ancient books in existence as well as the works by Lenin, and Mao Tse-tung.
2. In an alternating current the voltage rises from zero to its maximum value, then falls back to zero and goes on below zero on the negative side just as far as it rose on the positive side.
3. Benzine is not so volatile as ether.
4. Salt occurs underground either in strata in almost pure form, or mixed with rocky materials.
5. In order to make use of the electron emission the filament is surrounded by a sheath of a thin metal which is called the anode.
6. The faster an object moves the greater is the air resistance.
7. The expedition started as soon as all the preparations were completed.
II. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на значение союзных оборотов:
We know that heat is generated at reactions, as in the reactions of compounds with oxygen, with chlorine, with sulphur, etc. We also know that as far as possible industry strives to utilize this heat exchangers in order to economize fuel.
Heat is evolved in synthetic reactions as well as in other kinds of reactions. Thus, for example, we notice, that when hydrogen peroxide is decomposed by means of manganese dioxide, the test tube becomes perceptibly warm. And when we displace both the hydrogen of sulphuric acid by zinc and the copper of copper sulphate by iron, we also note an evolution of heat. A vast amount of heat is generated as soon as an explosive substance is decomposed. Chemical reactions may be accompanied by other phenomena besides the evolution of heat. Thus in a number of reactions as in reactions of combustion, the synthetic reactions of chlorine, and the explosion of gunpowder, we have an emission of light as well as the evolution of heat. Some reactions produce electricity. Heat, light, and electricity are different modifications of energy.
Most commonly we use energy either in the form of chemical energy or in the form of mechanical energy.
In certain branches of industry chemical energy is not so widely used as mechanical energy.
One form of energy can be transformed into another, but it can be neither created, nor destroyed.
The more chemical energy a substance contains the more mechanical energy can it give.
Pyroxiline and dynamite contain great stores of chemical energy and they produce a vast quantity of mechanical energy when they explode, bursting huge rocks, destroying, buildings, etc.
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