Неопределенные подлежащие one, they
Когда высказывание касается людей вообще или группы людей, объединенных общим признаком, то в качестве подлежащего употребляются местоимения one или they.
При этом one указывает на то, что говорящее лицо включается в сферу действия высказывания, тогда как they имеет в виду людей вообще (исключая говорящего).
Перевод таких предложений производится с помощью неопределенно-личного или безличного оборота.
one must (one should) переводится нужно
one can переводится можно:
One must be careful when handling mustard gas.
Нужно быть осторожным при обращении с горчичным газом.
One can easily decompose mercuric oxide at high temperature.
Можно легко разложить окись ртути при высокой температуре.
They say the weather will be better to-morrow.
Говорят, что погода будет завтра лучше.
1. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. It has long been known that metals can pass from a metallic to an earthy form. 2. It was in 1896 that natural radioactivity was discovered. 3. It is difficult to liberate oxygen from a compound as most of its compounds are very stable. 4. In atomic studies it has become the practice to express energies in electron-volt units. 5. It is the sun that steadily sends out a great amount of radiant energy. 6. It is the steam turbine that has replaced the old reciprocating engine. 7. On a physical map one can see seas, rivers and mountains. 8. The engine stopped; it was badly damaged. 9. A few years ago they had an exhibition of the Indian art in Leningrad. 10. One can still see Magellan's ship in Spain exhibited ashore in memory of the first journey around the world. 11. The coming winter, they say, will be extremely cold. 12. One could hardly expect such a turn of circumstances.
1. It was they, all the Soviet people who, by their toil and military skill, by their sweat and blood achieved the glorious victories which saved our country from enthralment. 2. It was with the aim of promoting durable peace and general security in the world that the governments of the USSR and China concluded the treaty. 3. One understands that the rearmament of West Germany is inconsistent with European security. 4. One must not forget about the atrocities committed by the German fascists.
* * *
1. It was Lomonosov who first stated that heat phenomena is connected with the motion of molecules. 2. It is the Russian scientist Lenz who established the law of heating effect of the electric current. 3. It was Tsiolkovsky who first designed a wind-tunnel in Russia. 4. It should be noted that a nuclear power plant of 100,000 kilowatt capacity would consume daily about 200-250 grams of uranium. 5. It was formerly believed that all heavy objects fell faster than light objects. 6. One should be especially careful when working with gamma and beta rays. 7. The winter of 1941 was extremely cold, in fact it was the coldest winter for the previous 10 years. 8. The flax crop, they say, will be fine this year. 9. One can see a great number of beautiful new houses in Moscow. 10. If one wants a thing done, one should do it oneself.
II. Переведите текст, обратив внимание на безличные и неопределенно-личные предложения и способы их перевода
The rusting of metals
It has long been known that metals can pass from a metallic to an earthy form. One must be careful not to expose unprotected iron to the open air, as under the influence of atmospheric conditions the outer layer of the iron quickly changes into a reddish crust called the rust. One can easily find that this new material is a different substance from iron. The rust is very brittle, it is much lighter, bulk for bulk, than iron and it is not attracted by a magnet.
It was early observed that, although the specific gravity of the earthy product was less than that of the metal, yet there was a much greater bulk of it, and that, in fact, the earthy material weighed more than the original specimen of the metal.
It was Lomonosov who first proved that the extra material came from the air. He placed some tin in a flask and sealed up the mouth of the vessel. The tin was heated and converted into the white powder. Upon weighing the apparatus it was found that no change in weight occurred. It turned out, however, that when the mouth of the flask was opened, a good deal of air rushed in and the total weight was then greater. A portion of the original air had joined itself with the tin to form the powder.
Eighteen years later the same experiment was made and the same conclusion drawn from it by Lavoisier. He named the gas taken from the air, oxygen.
It is possible to confirm these conclusions in various ways.
For example, when the air is pumped out of the flask before it is sealed, the metal can be heated in the vacuum indefinitely without rusting. Thus it can be seen that fundamentally rusting is the process in which metals oxidize and form compounds.
It has been estimated that more than 25 per cent of the annual production of iron in the USA is consumed in replacing other iron that has been rendered incerviceable by rusting.
It is necessary, therefore, to wage a constant battle against this chemical process and our immediate concern is how to take care of metallic devices and structures once they enter our possession.
We try to prevent or reduce rusting by various means, such as electroplating, painting or otherwise treating the metals that are susceptible to attack by the agencies of this harmful action.
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