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ERNEST RUTHERFORD

Ernest Rutherford, a great English physicist, was born in 1871 in New Zealand. His grandparents were among the first English settlers on the Island. In his early childhood Rutherford used to work at his father's farm.

When he was five, he was sent to primary school. Later at the University he revealed great abilities in physics. He took a deep interest in physical experiments. His work on The Magnetisation of Iron by Highfrequency Discharges was a great success. In 1895 Rutherford came to Cambridge. Here at the famous University he began his work at the laboratory led by professor Thomson. After discovering X-rays many scientists started to work with the new rays.

Rutherford was among them.

Together with professor Thomson he found that the X-rays have positive and negative ions in the gas. In 1898 Rutherford came to Canada to work at a research chair of physics at the Montreal University. He studied the structure of the atom and the processes of radioactivity. In 1899 he discovered that radioactive radiation consists of two particles, which he called Alpha and Beta rays.

Rutherford's discoveries made a great impression upon the scientists all over the world and he was invited to many Universities both in the US and Europe to lecture on these interesting problems. Later he worked at the University of Manchester where he continued to study the structure of the atom.

His work The Scattering of Alpha and Beta Particles of Matter and the Structure of the Atom was the result of his numerous experiments.

During the World War I he worked on the problem of submarine detection.

In 1918 he resumed his work and in 1919 he first

split the atom (atom fission). Rutherford died in 1937.

His research work is of great importance and is continued by many scientists all over the world. Our country has many achievements in this field of science.


Alpha альфа

atom fission расщепление атома

Beta бета

ion ион

Magnetisation of Iron by Highfrequencу Discharges «Намагничивание железа высокочастотными разрядами»

research chair исследовательская кафедра

scattering рассеивание

split расщеплять

X-rays рентгеновы лучи

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