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I. V. KURCHATOV (1903 - 1960)

A prominent Soviet physicist and statesman Kurchatov was born in a settlement called Simsley Zavod in Ufimskaya gubernia on the 12th of January 1903. His father was a land surveyor. At an early age Igor went to study physics and mathematics at the Crimea University.-He graduated from the University in 1923.

As a student he displayed a keen interest in scientific research.

Since 1925 Igor Vasilievitch Kurchatov began to work at Physical-Engineering Institute in Leningrad. - It was here that he achieved great results in the research of dielectrics which had been very little known at that time. Then Kurchatov began comprehensive experimental work to study a new class of materials which were of great importance. Later Kurchatov investigated the physics of the nucleus of an atom.

On his initiative and under his guidance a series of experiments was made. They led to a striking discovery of fission of the uranium nucleus.

During the Great Patriotic War Kurchatov gave all his energy and knowledge to the strengthening of military might of our Motherland.

In 1943 he became an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R.Since then he was at the head of the work on the use of atomic energy and created atom technique in our country.

Kurchatov educated numerous young scientists and engineers in the new field of science - nuclear physics. Kurchatov was not only a prominent scientist but an outstanding statesman as well. He was a passionate fighter for peace. His contribution to the Soviet science was great and the Soviet Government awarded him with five Orders of Lenin, two Orders of the Red Banner of Labour and many Medals.

Three times Kurchatov was awarded a title of Hero of Socialist Labour. Speaking at the session of the Supreme Soviet on the 15th of January 1960 Igor Vasilievitch said, “I am happy that I was born in Russia and that I have devoted all my life to nuclear physics. I have a profound belief and I know for sure that our people and our government will give the achievements of this science for the good of the mankind only”.

A great scientist, a man of enormous energy, Igor Vasilievitch Kurchatov died on the 7th of February, 1960 when he was only 57 years old. It was a great loss for our people.


fission расщепление (ядра)

lay foundations (laid, laid) заложить основы

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