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8. Адвербиальные обороты

Any longer больше не, дольше:

When the boiling point is reached, adding heat to the liquid does not raise its temperature any longer.

Когда достигнута точка кипения, то дальнейшая подача тепла к жидкости больше не повышает ее температуры.

No longer больше не, дольше:

Dry steam is no longer а vapour and may be considered as a gas.

Сухой пар не является больше паром и может рассматриваться как газ.

As a result в результате, в конце концов:

Lines of force around the conductor appear as a result of a current flow through the conductor.

Силовые линии вокруг проводника возникают в результате движения тока через проводник.

At all совсем (употребляется для усиления отрицания):

We detected in this substance no impurities at all.

Мы совсем не обнаружили примесей в этом веществе.

At first сначала:

The voltage of the a. c. during a cycle at first rises and then falls.

Напряжение переменного тока в течение цикла сначала повышается, а затем падает.

At last наконец:

We have at last penetrated into the secrets of the atom.

Мы, наконец, проникли в тайну атома.

At least по крайней мере:

At least 50 unstable isotopes have been found in nature.

По крайней мере 50 нестойких изотопов были обнаружены в природе.

At once сразу, немедленно:

The sedimentation ceased at оnсе.

Осаждение прекратилось немедленно.

At present в настоящее время, теперь:

At present all roads lead to Communism.

В настоящее время все дороги ведут к коммунизму.

In fact фактически, в действительности:

In fact, the theoretical efficiency of a heat engine is always far below 100 percent.

Фактически теоретическая эффективность теплового двигателя всегда значительно ниже 100%.

In this way таким путем, таким образом:

We have raised the temperature and, in this way, accelerated the process of evaporation.

Мы подняли температуру, и таким путем, ускорили процесс испарения.

Упражнения

I. Переведите следующие предложения:

А.

1. The colonial and dependent peoples refuse to tolerate foreign overlordship any longer.

2. World peace is no longer an aspiration; it is the natural result of our efforts.

3. As a result of its victories and achievements the Soviet State immeasurably gained in prestige and authority in the international arena.

4. The war is not inevitable at all.

5. At first it was planned to build the Volga-Don Canal in six years, later it was decided to complete most of the work much earlier.

6. China, at present, is a free and independent country.

7. At least half of the German war potential was destroyed in the last war.

8. The Germans built up a strong defence line around Berlin and, in this way, tried to stop our advance.

В.

1. We could not notice in the rotating shaft any vibrations at all.

2. At first man learned how to keep up a fire and then how to obtain it by rubbing dry sticks together or by striking sparks out of stone.

3. After many experiments we have at last liberated oxygen from this compound.

4. Experimentally, at least, the energies of the quantum levels of a nucleus are not sharply defined.

5. Some materials are found to lose their electrical charge at once.

6. About 300 stable isotopes are known at present in nature.

7. In fact, there is no difference in the lines of force or in their action whether the field is produced by a permanent magnet or an electromagnet.

8. The controlled release of nuclear energy promises to lead us into a new world in which the achievement of man will not be any longer limited by the supply of energy available to him.

C.

1. Some substances are not soluble in water at all.

2. The substance was at first purified and then subjected to strong heating.

3. At last the radio-message reached the expedition.

4. Most substances are known in at least three different States, viz.: a solid, a liquid, and a gaseous form.

5. Possessing domestic animals, primitive people had a constant supply of food and were no longer dependent on the outcome of their hunt which was not always a success.

6. Alternating current of high frequency tends to flow on the surface of a wire, thus the centre of the conduction is, in fact, of no use at all.

7. Neptunium-239 is unstable; it emits an electron from the molecule and, in this way, transforms into a new element.

II. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на значение адвербиальных оборотов:

Classification of fuels

The principal fuels used at present for making steam, are coal, coke, wood, charcoal, peat, mineral oil, and natural and artificial gas.

All kinds of fuel may, in fact, be virtually subdivided into three classes: solid, liquid, and gaseous.

All coals seem to be derived from vegetable origin and their differences appeared as a result of the varying conditions under which they were formed. Anthracite coal consists almost entirely of carbon and inorganic matters; it contains little or no hydrocarbon at all. Some varieties appear to approach graphite in their characteristics and are burned with difficulty unless at first mixed with other coals. Good anthracite is hard, compact, and lustrous. It burns with very little flame unless it is moist, and gives a very intense fire, free from smoke. Even when carefully used, it is liable to break up at high temperatures and, in this way, the fine pieces may be lost with the ash. Semi-anthracite contains some hydrocarbon, is less dense than anthracite, ignites at once and burns readily with a short flame.

Bituminous coals contain a large and varying per cent of hydrocarbons or bituminous matter. Their physical properties and behaviour, when burning, vary widely so that classification is difficult, though at least three kinds may be distinguished as follows: dry bituminous coals, caking bituminous coals and, at last, long-flaming bituminous coals. The latter has a strong tendency to produce smoke; some do and some do not cake at all while burning.

Charcoal is made by charring wood; it is no longer used for making steam but is widely applied for special metallurgical purposes.

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