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2. Упражнения на грамматические и лексические трудности

Указатель упражнений

Содержание: Номера предложений:
1. Фразеология 7, 13, 14, 19, 21, 26, 29, 40, 49, 52, 54, 55, 83, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 125, 129, 140, 155, 157, 166, 167.
2. Служебные слова и выражения 7, 8, 10, 17, 19, 21, 22, 27, 28, 33, 35, 37, 38, 43, 45, 49, 50, 59, 64, 66, 67, 72, 73, 76, 86, 91, 92, 96, 106, 108, 111, 116, 117, 119, 123, 133, 136, 141, 142, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 159, 163, 167, 168, 169, 171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 180.
3. Пассивная форма 5, 14, 17, 22, 23, 27, 32, 37, 52, 64, 67, 73, 78, 81, 85, 87, 89, 90, 93, 94, 96, 97, 102; 105, 109, 119, 128, 137, 140, 144, 145, 151, 159, 163, 177.
4. Причастие (Present и Perfect Participle) 5, 6, 11, 12, 24, 26, 32, 36, 39, 44, 54, 60, 65, 66, 71, 74, 82, 83, 86, 87, 93, 109, 120, 136, 158, 159, 179.
5. Герундий 2, 19, 20, 25, 28, 33, 45, 47, 48, 49, 60, 61, 72, 79, 85, 87, 88, 92, 103, 106, 108, 120, 121, 125, 132, 136, 148, 157, 175, 177, 178.
6. Отглагольное существительное 4, 7, 9, 36, 41, 47, 66, 83, 90, 137, 178.
7. Независимый причастный оборот 4, 12, 34, 43, 63, 72, 81, 82, 84, 94, 105, 111, 114, 116, 122, 129, 164.
8. Причастие II (Past Participle Passive) 6, 13, 15, 16, 27, 31, 41, 47, 48, 57, 58, 61, 64, 66, 72, 74, 95, 102, 103, 108, 110, 118, 124, 131, 138, 150, 151, 157, 159, 161, 163, 168, 174, 180.
9. Инфинитив 12, 16, 18, 23, 30, 38, 46, 52, 53, 57, 60, 68, 69, 73, 78, 82, 86, 87, 98, 112, 118, 119, 127, 128, 135, 138, 148, 165, 169.
10. "Субъектный инфинитивный оборот" 15, 24, 43, 50, 71, 74, 83, 104, 122, 173, 180.
11. "Объектный инфинитивный оборот" 16, 25, 44, 51, 72, 75,84, 109, 132, 143, 160.
12. Модальность 1, 6, 14, 19, 20, 24, 29, 35, 37, 56, 71, 77, 78, 79, 80, 93, 96, 97, 100, 103, 120, 121 125, 128, 135, 138, 142, 145, 147, 150, 159, 162, 177.
13. Условные предложения 11, 42, 69, 80, 97, 114, 130.
14. Инверсия 10, 11, 29, 69, 91, 99, 106, 113, 114, 129, 130.
15. Бессоюзные предложения 3, 8, 9, 12, 20, 35, 39, 40, 63, 101, 115, 128, 161.
16. Безличные предложения 14, 29, 41, 56, 77, 100, 103, 116, 120, 125, 128, 139, 149, 158, 170, 174.
17. One 13, 19, 29, 35, 56, 81, 84, 88, 100, 103, 108, 139, 158.
18. That 81, 122, 136, 159, 160.
19. Whether 113, 126, 146, 174, 179.
20. Сокращения 13, 38, 39, 47, 68, 72, 89, 91, 92, 94, 95, 115, 138, 152, 164.
А.

1. The Volga-Don Canal is to water the semi-desert and drought affected areas of the Rostov region.

2. Successful solution of the practical tasks of the Party work is impossible without diligently and persistently mastering Marxist-Leninist theory.

3. To place the atom at the service of peace is the goal Soviet Policy as well as Soviet science is striving for.

4. The economic progress of the Mongolian People's Republic depends primarily on its cattlebreeding, four-fifths of the country's population being engaged in this branch of industry.

5. Unless heat is provided from an external source, any evaporating water is cooler than the surrounding air.

6. The centre of gravity of the fluid displaced must be in the same vertical line as the centre of gravity of the floating body.

7. In capitalist society the sole aim of production is the obtaining of profits in order to enrich a handful of capitalists who have appropriated the lion's share of the national wealth.

8. Grave difficulties the American farmer is forced to contend with are due, in large measure, to the cold war, militarization and the interruption of normal international economic relations.

9. The banning of atomic weapons the USSR consistently insists upon is the best proof of our peaceable aims.

10. Despite their solemn promises, neither in 1942 nor in 1943 did the rulers of the USA and Great Britain open the second front in Europe.

11. Had it not been for the mighty socialist camp, the imperialists would have long ago unleashed a war against the freedom-loving peoples.

12. Peking, like every other place we visited in China, gave our delegation a rousing welcome, thousands of people crowding the pavements to acclaim the representatives of the Soviet State.

13. American papers, particularly provincial ones, have given voice to the keen anxiety felt by the average U. S. citizen over the fact that their economy is being kept harnessed to the war chariot.

14. It may safely be predicted that towards the close of the century ordinary fuels will be to a large extent ousted by nuclear fuel in the production of electrical power.

15. Silver is known to have the lowest resistance of all metals used in practice.

16. We know the specific heat of a substance to be defined as the amount of heat required to raise unit weight of the substance through 1° of temperature.

17. The deeper the scientists penetrate into the secret of the atomic nucleus and the more effectively they learn to control the gigantic forces latent therein the more apparent it becomes what huge potentialities are placed at the disposal of man by peaceful utilization of atomic energy.

18. It is precisely the readiness to negotiate and to discard the bankrupt policy of strength that the peoples are demanding of their governments.

19. The fact cannot be overlooked that the disarmament discussions have to this day led to no constructive results, though more than ten years, one should think, is sufficient time for reaching this goal.

20. The main problem the scientists had to solve was the possibility of controlling chain reactions.

21. Peaceful policy of the Soviet Union stands both in word and in deeds for the settlement of existing differences by peaceful means.

22. Lenin's views on the problem of the peaceful co-existence of the two systems were repeatedly expounded and upheld by our leaders both before and after the second World War.

23. Marx was the first to show that the development of human society was based on the material conditions of its existence.

24. Every living organism can be shown to be made of cells.

25. Scientists found natural radioactive materials to emit 3 kinds of rays capable of affecting the photographic plate.

26. The Congress declared that the Chinese working class would continue to take an active part in the international labour movement.

27. Radioisotopes produced by our atomic industry are widely employed in the metallurgical industry both in experimentation and in actual production.

28. A kilogram of nuclear fuel is capable of producing as much heat as many dozens of carloads of coal.

29. One should remember that there is always one more plate in the negative group of each cell of a battery than there is in the positive one.

30. To release the mighty power of nuclear energy means to open up boundless prospects for the progress of industry agriculture and transport and for the advancement of science and technology.

B.

31. The potentialities opened up by peaceful utilization of atomic energy are unbounded.

32. Having been invented by the great Russian scientist A. S. Popov, the radio has been greatly developed during the recent years by the Soviet scholars.

33. Nearly 3 years of hostilities in Korea have shown once more that even the most ferocious means are incapable of breaking the spirit of a people who are defending their country and upholding their liberty and independence.

34. The Chinese city of Wuhan sprawls on either side of the river, its broad surface being alive with hundreds of sailing vessels.

35. According to the first post-war five-year plan we adopted the damaged power plants had to be reconstructed and a great number of new ones constructed.

36. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union holds high the invincible banner of Marxism uniting the people and directing all their efforts to the building of Communist society.

37. Unlike non-linear distortion frequency distortion can be compensated in another part of the amplifier.

38. The USSR was the only Great Power in the UNO to support the demands of Egypt for the evacuation of foreign troops.

39. The friendly assistance the USSR renders to China shows the great friendship existing between our two nations.

40. It cannot but be noted that certain politicians and sections of the press in the West opposed the Soviet proposals on all-European security.

41. It is estimated that one pound of U 235 is equivalent to the energy produced through the burning of 15 to 20 thousand tons of T. N. T. (trinitro-toluene).

42. If the atmospheric conditions had been better, we should have used long radio waves.

43. Batteries and dynamos, being the most efficient generators of electricity, are known to supply nearly all of our electric power.

44. Studies of positively charged alpha rays have shown them to be nuclei of helium atoms moving at high speeds.

45. The deeper the Germans penetrated into our land the more difficult for them became the problem of supplying troops because of intensive partisan activity in their rear.

46. It was V. V. Petrov who first discovered the electric arc.

47. The safety problems involved in the production of atomic energy viz., protecting the personnel from the harmful effects of the radioactive particles and safe means of handling the products of nuclear disintegration are being solved by our scientists.

48. When properly prepared, oxidecoated emitters are capable of giving very high emission efficiencies.

49. The imperialists have locked themselves out of the democratic world market and, as a result, find themselves in difficulties; they are being stifled by lack of markets for their industrial products.

Economic militarization and rearmament, far from proving a salvation, have only aggravated their economic difficulties.

50. Some materials are found to become readily charged and to hold the charge quite well, while others seem to lose their charge nearly at once.

51. We know the Ohm to be the standard unit of resistance.

52. The Seventh All-China Congress of Trade Unions was the first trade union congress to be held since the liberation of the country.

53. To harness the enormous energy of the atomic nucleus for the exclusive service of peace is the direct and urgent duty of all peace-lovers.

54. Atomic energy is the foundation of all the processes taking place in our universe.

55. From the very first months after the establishment of the Soviet State a great attention was paid to the electrification of our country.

56. One has only to glance through the texts of the Yalta and other joint decisions of the Powers of the anti-Hitler coalition to see that there is not a word in them about the dismemberment of Germany.

57. One drop of water contains sufficent atomic power to raise two million tons ten miles high. Energy contained in a few drops of water could drive a ten-ton interplanetary rocket to the moon and back, with a great deal of power to spare.

58. Gamma rays are identical with X-rays produced in an X-ray tube operated at very high voltage.

59. Theory becomes a material force only when it has gripped the masses.

60. The principal elements of a nuclear reactor or atomic pile, besides the fuel, are a device to slow up or moderate the speed of the neutrons, a shield serving as protection against radiation, and a mechanism for regulating the neutron atmosphere.

C.

61. Only the Soviet Union submitted at the conference effective proposals for lessening international tension, promoting universal peace, and safeguarding European security.

62. Atomic energy is the name applied to the stores of energy contained in the nuclei of atoms.

63. Ordinary chemical processes we have so long known affect only the electrons of the atom, the nucleus remaining ever unchanged.

64. Since mica has a high dielectric constant as well as low losses and since it is available in thin sheets, it is often used in condensers designed for use at high frequencies.

65. While teaching mathematics Tsiolkovsky continued his self education studying astronomy, biology, and chemistry.

66. The most daring dream of altering the face of the Earth or conquering cosmic space may become a reality by means of enormous stores of energy hidden in the atomic nucleus.

67. Spanish is spoken both in Spain and in South America.

68. The e. m. f. to be measured is relatively high.

69. Only rarely does the bourgeois press venture to name the true reason of the aggravation of international tension.

70. If platinum had not been so scarce in nature, it would have found much larger use in industry.

71. The atom which gives us electric energy may prove to be the turning point in human history.

72. We know the transformer to be an apparatus designed for changing the a. c. voltages and current by means of magnetic induction, the frequency remaining unchanged.

73. Since the first separation of Uranium 235 from Uranium 238, better methods were devised to divorce it from its mother substance.

74. Solids or gases dissolved in liquids are found to change the boiling point of the liquids.

75. We suppose the first watermill to have been introduced more than 2,000 years ago.

76. The larger the plates and the greater the number of plates in the battery, the more current it will provide.

77. It is clear that the German problem cannot be divorced from the problem of European security.

78. To ensure stable radio communication different radio waves are to be selected for a certain range, time, and season of the year.

79. Mankind must be delivered from the threat of atomic energy being used for purposes of war and destruction.

80. If all the mass of U 235 could be utilized, one pound of it would yield an energy equivalent to 6 billion pounds of coal.

81. Two bodies being placed in contact with each other, the temperature of the hot body falls while that of the cold one rises.

82. Russian scientist Petrov was the first to observe the phenomenon of electric arc, his great discovery being the starting point of the modern science of electricity.

83. We know storage batteries to have two terminals, the positive terminal being marked with a plus sign and the negative one with a minus sign.

84. The temperature at which melting of a substance takes place is known to be the melting point of this substance.

85. Great interest has been shown during recent years in preparing compounds in which hydrogen is replaced by deuterium.

86. Declining industrial output is an important but not the only crisis symptom to be observed in the capitalist economy.

87. In the near future the nuclear reactor, no doubt, will be used effectively and with economic advantage for powering big ships; this will release a large amount of bunkering space and enable the ships to make long non-stop voyages. It should be borne in mind that a large ship can carry a month's supply of nuclear fuel in a space of a cigarette box.

88. Here in Berlin, one is particularly conscious of the importance and, at the same time, the complexity of the German problem, and the necessity of settling it without further delay is borne in upon one at every step.

89. American tourists to the USSR - few and far between as yet - admit that the Soviet people are well disposed towards the people of the USA.

90. The regulating of the density of the neutron "gas" in a nuclear reactor is done by automatically inserting and withdrawing from the reactor strips or bars of special composition which absorb neutrons.

D.

91. Nowadays there is no longer any need to show that policy of discrimination has failed in its effect as far as the USSR, China and the European People's Democracies are concerned.

92. Despite the U. S. pressure only a very few countries have discontinued trading with the countries of the socialist camp.

93. The products resulting from nuclear fission are very cheap and they can be used in industry on a very large scale.

94. In the boiler the water is first heated to its b. p. and then vapourized, both processes taking place approximately at constant pressure.

95. Data issued by the U. S. Bureau of mines show that the coal output level in 1952 was the lowest in the last 15 years.

96. Inertia is that property of matter because of which a force must be exerted on a body in order to accelerate it.

97. If the efforts of the warmongers are to be frustrated and the great hope of peace that has been born in the hearts of the peoples is not to be disappointed, the peoples must be persistent, persevering, organized and vigilant.

98. Evidently a world conference to discuss a general reduction of armaments does not suit certain elements in the West.

99. Never before have motion and moving things been so important as they are to-day.

100. It is easy to understand why warmer water should evaporate more rapidly than the cold one.

101. A gas fills completely the vessel it is placed in.

102. The cost of a kilowatt-hour of electric power produced by a nuclear reactor is determined by the amount of capital invested and the cost of operation and is practically unaffected by the cost of the fuel itself and of its transportation.

103. How, one asks, can the "European community" advocated by the Western powers prevent West Germany from becoming a menace to Europe?

104. Watermills are supposed to have been introduced more than 2,000 years ago.

105. When an alpha particle is emitted by an atomic nucleus of an element, the nuclear charge decreases, the element being transmitted into the element two columns to the left in the periodic table.

106. The more we penetrate into the secrets of atom the brighter prospects do we obtain of harnessing its latent energy for the benefit of man.

107. It was in 1897 that Popov first discovered the phenomenon of radio-waves reflection.

108. The Indian method of lighting a fire by rubbing a stick rapidly against another one is an illustration of heat produced because of motion.

109. Alpha, beta, and gamma rays are affected differently by a magnetic field showing them to have different electrical charges.

110. Coal and oil produce heat when brought into chemical reaction with oxygen.

111. Nearly all metals are good conductors of electricity, silver being the best conductor of all.

112. To study the disturbance disrupting radio communication a special experiment was made by A. S. Popov.

113. There is no difference in the lines of force whether or not the field is produced by an electromagnet.

114. Had silver been less costly, it would have been widely used as a conductor, its conductivity being very high.

115. The amount of current a cell produces depends on the resistance this current must pass through and on the e. m. f. of the cell.

116. According to the molecular-kinetic theory the molecules always collide with one another and change direction, the speed of the molecular motion greatly depending on the temperature.

117. Since one half of the material of the earth's crust is oxygen, its compounds are very common.

118. Shortly after peoples rule was established in North Korea the government decided to build a huge irrigation system.

119. Polzunov's engine was the first steam engine to be used instead of water wheels.

120. It is estimated that in the case of atomic piles in the order of 100,000 kw. about one quarter of the capacity will have to be used for working the pumps which keep the cooling substances flowing through the installation.

E.

121. The efforts of atomic scientists must be concentrated entirely on devising peaceful uses of nuclear power.

122. Semi-conductors are known to conduct electricity with difficulty, their specific resistance being many times higher than that of metallic condu ctors.

123. The sun attracts the earth and the other planets of the solar system as well as the most distant stars.

124. When offered to leave his country to work abroad, A. S. Popov flatly refused.

125. It should be remembered that nuclear fuel is potentially capable of enourmously increasing the supply of electric power for use in industry and in the home.

126. The complex sounds with identical frequencies and amplitudes are indistinguishable from one another by ear wheth er or not their phase angles are the same.

127. A. S. Popov was the first to produce an apparatus which became the great means of communication.

128. It has been shown theoretically that all the elements we find in nature can be made to produce energy by nuclear reaction; this problem will be solved practically sooner or later.

129. There takes place a conversion of electric energy into heat in an incandencent lamp, the heat being so intense in the wire that it becomes white-hot and produces light.

130. Were the temperature raised the evaporation would be accelerated.

131. When heated solids expand little as compared with liquids.

132. By dropping from a high tower two balls of different size but of the same material Gallileo found light objects to fall as fast as heavy ones.

133. The greater the atomic weight of an element the more heavily it is packed with electrons.

134. It was in 1896 that natural radioactivity was first discovered.

135. The practically unlimited stores of nuclear energy should make it possible in the future to water deserts and melt the ice in the oceans.

136. Photon rockets operating by emission of light particles, photons, should be capable of flying at enormous speeds, approxi

mately that of light. Of course so far such photon rockets are only a thing of the future.

137. The lightness of hydrogen is made use of in the filling of balloons.

138. To find out the state of a given mass of a gas we have to know three things about it, viz.: its volume, its pressure, and its temperature.

139. One would have thought that recent history has surely taught foreign aggressive circles a few lessons.

140. Powder was known to the Chinese as early as the 5-th century.

141. The sun is not the only source of energy, for there are unlimited reserves of energy in the atoms of various chemical elements.

142. The magnitude of electric current as well as voltage and resistance may vary from a minute amount to a very large quantity.

143. We know the electric current to consist in the motion of electrons through an electric conductor.

144. Since the Revolution the Chinese agricultural output has been increasing from year to year.

145. In spite of all technical innovations radio reception may be temporally hampered by unfavourable ionospheric conditions.

146. The extent of the electronic movement in a body depends upon whether it is in a solid, liquid, or gaseous condition.

147. For a good cancellation of radiation the two conductors should be parallel to each other.

148. The future of an industrial country largely depends both on the ability of her scientists to discover the secrets of nature and on their speed in applying the new techniques that science places within their grasp.

149. It might be thought upon first consideration that a system of closely packed protons in the atomic nucleus would fly apart because of the electrostatic repulsion of the charges.

150. Many problems connected with the utilization of atomic energy have still to be solved, but the fact remains that the use of this new powerful source of energy for the benefit of mankind is already a real possibility.

F.

151. The world's first atomic power station built in the Soviet Union will be followed in the near future by stations with capacities of tens and hundreds of thousands of kilowatts.

152. As the mass number, i.e. the sum of the neutrons and protons, increases, the neutron-to-proton ratio for stability increases.

153. In spite of brutal nazi repressions the French Communist Party emerged still stronger from its severe trial.

154. Monopoly groups in Britain for example, have long been insisting that a large proportion of the West-German economy be converted to military purposes in order to slow down the stream of West-German exports, increase their production cost, and undermine the competitive power of West-German industry.

155. Owing to the great care of our Government and the Communist Party, broadcasting in our country developed on a very large scale.

156. According to the modern theory, of electricity the electron is a minute charge of electricity.

157. As a result of the successes achieved by the USSR in the sphere of peaceful utilization of atomic energy, lack of confidence abroad in the practical possibility of the early application of achievements of physics for peaceful purposes has given place to profound belief in the possibility of building atomic power plants and of manufacturing atom-run-motors.

158. One must always be careful when making experiments with liquid air.

Opening new vistas to countries with advanced economies, nuclear energy can at the same time revive both the countries whose power sources have been exhausted and those whose development is being retarded by the shortage of power resources.

129. We expect the chemical properties of pure oxygen to be like those of air.

130. When heated to incandescence the filament of wire emits some of the free electrons it contains.

131. Atomic energy is to be used for the development of our socialist industry.

132. In order to make use of the electron emission the filament is surrounded by a sheath of a thin metal known as the anode.

133. The number of cycles per second is the frequency of the a. c., the most common a. c. frequency being 50 c. p. s.

134. The great Russian admiral and scientist Makarov was the first to solve the problem of the stability of the ship.

135. As the biggest, strongest, most united, and militant democratic party in Italy, the Communist Party to-day is playing an outstanding role on the political arena.

136. Since World War II the movement of national independence in colonies has gained greatly in strength.

137. The greater the density of the neutron "gas" in a nuclear reactor or atomic pile, the larger the quantity of energy released in a given unit of time.

138. Thanks to magnetic effects dynamos are able to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

139. It is known that the circulation of wind and water in nature depends upon the heat of the sun.

140. The electron has the properties of a wave as well as of a corpuscle.

141. According to the electron theory any passage of electricity is a movement of electrons.

142. Mica is known to possess both high dielectric constant and low losses.

143. It will be observed that 65.4 parts of zinc displace two parts of hydrogen, whether the acid used is sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid.?

144. Heat is a form of transmission of energy, thus studying heat means studying ^energy charges.

145. Mighty industrial potential of the USSR has created a firm material basis for the rapid increase of output both of means of production and of articles of consumption simultaneously.

146. Great threat to the nations of Europe can be removed by abandoning the imperialist policy of reviving German militarism and by establishing a system of collective security in Europe.

147. The production of uranium isotopes is one method of procuring the raw materials that go into the making of atomic bombs.

148. One of the general principles that underline all processes occurring in nature, whether they be physical, chemical, or biological, is the principle of conservation of energy.

149. Uranium was found to be the only element in nature whose atomic nuclei split up when brought into contact with neutrons.

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