TEXT 1. EXTRAMURAL INSTITUTIONS
Upbringing in Soviet schools is organically linked with the educational process. It is carried on at the lessons but naturally is not confined to them. Various clubs, study and sports groups are a common feature. They help more fully meet the pupils' interests and contribute to their all-round development.
The АН-Union Young Pioneer Organization and the All-Union Young Communist League Kave a vital role to play in bringing up schoolchildren.
The USSR Ministry of Education maintains a network of extramural institutions which help the schools in their educational work, in the all-round development of pupils and in organizing their leisure. It includes Young Pioners' and Schoolchildren's Houses and Palaces, young technicians' and young naturalists' centres, children's excursion and tourist clubs, sports schools and other institutions.
Extensive work among schoolchildren is also carried out by various institutions functioning under other ministries and departments. For instance, there is a great number of children's libraries. Many cities have children's theatres. There are numerous parks for children and special children's railways and steamship lines. The children's sections of trade union clubs and Palaces of Culture, museums, sports societies and other institutions are also doing a great deal for schoolchildren.
The updating of the content of education and the need for the further perfection of teaching methods in general schools confronted the extramural institutions with the task of bringing the diverse out-of-class and out-of-school activities into conformity with the new syllabuses.
New forms of work aimed at stimulating the pupils' interest in learning have been devised. Clubs and study groups introducing pupils to the achievements of modern science and technology are becoming increasingly widespread. Another recent development is science centres for pupils which familiarize them with research methods and scientific literature and teach them the techniques of using archive sources, catalogues, bibliograhical publications and other reference material. These centres are raising the theoretical standard of their work by strengthening their ties with higher educational and research institutions.
Extramural institutions also play an important part in the aesthetic education and physical training of pupils, thus contributing to their all-round development.
While carrying on their educational work throughout the year, the extramural institutions provide a particularly wide range of activities during the vacation periods when they hold sports contests and festivals, organize youth rallies and ethnographic, archaeological, geographical and other expeditions, run Young Pioneer camps and children's playgrounds in towns, and so on.
The extramural institutions exert a significant influence on the organization of educational work in schools. Using their own facilities or those of the best schools they organize seminars for teachers who direct the work of school museums and clubs, pupils' production teams, study and art groups, excursion and tourist activities. The regional and district children's libraries help school teachers and librarians in organizing their work.
The educational and professional standards of the workers of extramural institutions have improved considerably in the last few years. Advanced-training courses are regularly organized for them.
1) What is upbringing in Soviet schools organically linked with?
2) What organizations have a vital role to play in bringing up schoolchildren?
3) What does a network of extramural institutions include?
4) What new forms of work aimed at stimulating the pupils' interest in learning have been devised?
5) Do extramural institutions play an important part in the aesthetic education and physical training of pupils?
6) How do the exramural institutions exert a significant influence on the organization of educational work in schools?
1. Extramural institutions - внешкольные детские учреждения
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